Kyoto Protocol Vs Paris Climate Agreement

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President Obama was able to formally enshrine the United States in the agreement through executive measures because he did not impose new legal obligations on the country. The United States already has a number of instruments on the books, under laws already passed by Congress to reduce carbon pollution. The country officially joined the agreement in September 2016, after submitting its request for participation. The Paris Agreement was only able to enter into force after the formal accession of at least 55 nations representing at least 55% of global emissions. This happened on October 5, 2016 and the agreement came into force 30 days later, on November 4, 2016. The agreement not only reduced emissions, but also introduced the Clean Development Mechanism to act on carbon. This meant that countries that did not meet the reduction targets could «buy» the right to additional emissions from households in less polluting countries. They could also be offset by measures to combat climate change in developing countries. One per cent of the revenue generated by the Emissions Trading Scheme is spent on a climate change adaptation fund for measures such as mangrove reforestation, dam construction and erosion control in mountainous regions of developing countries. According to the World Bank, about $10 billion (9.2 billion euros) has been invested in projects through the Fund and the Emissions Trading System.

The Paris Agreement (the Paris Agreement) [3] is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st UNFCCC Conference of parties held at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and agreed on 12 December 2015. [4] [5] Since February 2020, all 196 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement and 189 have left. [1] Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, Iran and Turkey are the only major emitters. The countries most affected by the effects of climate change will be low-lying nations, particularly vulnerable to sea level rise, and developing countries that do not have the resources to adapt to changes in temperature and precipitation. But prosperous nations like the United States are also increasingly vulnerable. In fact, millions of Americans – especially children, the elderly and the poor – are already suffering from the wrath of climate change. The long-term objective of the Paris Agreement is to keep the increase in global average temperature well below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels; and to continue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius, while acknowledging that this would significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change. This should require a rapid reduction in emissions to achieve «a balance between anthropogenic emissions from sources and the reduction of greenhouse gases from wells» in the second half of the 21st century. It also means increasing the parties` ability to adapt to the negative effects of climate change and «reconciling financial flows with a way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resistant development.» The growing demand for fresh water, coupled with a drier climate in many parts of the world, has increased the demand for desalination facilities.

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